King Snake Care Sheet (A Beginner’s Guide to Caring for Kingsnake)

Kingsnakes aren’t a monolith; there are approximately 45 recognized subspecies. This staggering diversity implies that these creatures inhabit an impressively wide range of habitats.

Kingsnakes are native to North America, primarily residing in the United States and Mexico. They showcase remarkable adaptability, capable of thriving in environments as diverse as tropical and subtropical broadleaf forests, all the way to deserts and xeric shrublands.

Kingsnakes aren’t limited to terrestrial life; their skills extend far beyond. They’re renowned for being exceptional climbers and swimmers, mastering all types of terrain. It’s almost as if there’s no environment they can’t conquer! This adaptability doesn’t just make them interesting; it also provides a myriad of options for potential owners when setting up their habitats.

Kingsnake Size

Kingsnakes can vary widely in length. The information presented here has been extensively researched and is sourced from “Kingsnakes and Milk Snakes” by Ronald G. Markel, an expert in the field.

SubspeciesAverage Length (Inches)Average Length (cm)
L. alterna42-50107-127
L. calligaster calligaster30-4276-107
L. c. rhombomaculata30-4076-102
L. c. occipitolineata30-4276-107
L. getulus getulus48-60122-152
L. g. californiae42-50107-127
L. g. floridana36-4891-122
L. g. holbrooki36-4891-122
L. g. niger36-4591-114
L. g. nigritus24-3661-91
L. g. splendida36-4591-114
L. mexicana24-3661-91
L. pyromelana pyromelana30-4176-104
L. p. infralabialis30-3676-91
L. p. knoblochi3691
L. p. woodini36-4291-107
L. ruthveni28-3270-80
L. zonata zonata30-3676-91
L. z. agalma24-3061-76
L. z. herrerae24-3061-76
L. z. multicincta30-3676-91
L. z. multifasciata30-3676-91
L. z. parvirubra36-4091-102
L. z. pulchra30-3676-91

Kingsnake Lifespan

A well-looked-after Kingsnake can live up to 20-30 years in captivity. Kingsnakes live considerably longer in captivity. This is primarily due to the absence of predators, a controlled diet, and immediate medical care that captive snakes enjoy, which their wild counterparts often lack.

EnvironmentAverage Lifespan
Wild10-15 years
Captivity20-30 years

Kingsnake Appearance

When you set your sights on a kingsnake for the first time, you are greeted by a breathtaking spectacle of nature’s palette. Kingsnakes are renowned for their diverse array of colors and patterns, making them one of the most visually striking reptiles in the herpetological world.

Color Variations in Kingsnakes

When it comes to colors, kingsnakes have a royal variety. The color spectrum ranges from the jet blacks of the California kingsnake to the dazzling yellows of the Desert kingsnake. The Scarlet kingsnake, another popular variety, is a stunning tricolor snake with bands of red, black, and yellow.

Color in Kingsnakes

  • California Kingsnake: Predominantly black with white or cream bands.
  • Desert Kingsnake: Typically brown or yellow with dark brown or black bands.
  • Scarlet Kingsnake: Bands of red, black, and yellow.

Their colors aren’t mere vanity; they play a pivotal role in their survival, providing these snakes with an effective camouflage tool in their natural habitats. The color variations also enable these creatures to mimic other more venomous snakes, a phenomenon called Batesian mimicry, which aids in warding off potential predators.


Apart from the colors, the distinctive patterns are what set kingsnakes apart. The patterns generally consist of bands, rings, spots, or a combination of these, and differ greatly between species and even individuals within the same species.

Common Patterns

  • Banding: Seen in many species, including the California kingsnake.
  • Speckling: Often found in the Speckled kingsnake, displaying a unique ‘speckled’ appearance.
  • Stripes: Rare in kingsnakes, but can occasionally be seen.

These patterns, coupled with their diverse color schemes, make each kingsnake uniquely exquisite, and the sight of a coiled kingsnake in your terrarium is a visual treat you’ll never tire of.

Do King Snakes Make Good Pets?

King snakes are indeed amazing creatures, full of wonder, and possessing unique attributes that make them intriguing as pets.

Pros of Owning a King Snake as a Pet

Here are the points that make a king snake good pet.

1. Easy to Care For

King snakes are comparatively low maintenance, making them an excellent choice for beginners. Their primary needs involve an appropriate terrarium, a regulated temperature, and a diet mainly consisting of rodents which are readily available in pet stores.

2. Long Lifespan

One of the king snake’s most attractive traits is their long lifespan. In a properly maintained environment, king snakes can live up to 20 years, offering a long-term companion for reptile enthusiasts.

3. Vibrant Colors and Patterns

The king snake’s wide range of vibrant colors and captivating patterns can be an absolute spectacle to behold. These serpents are living pieces of art, offering both aesthetic pleasure and a fascinating conversation starter.

4. Generally Docile Nature

Although they are formidable in the wild, king snakes tend to be docile in a home environment. With regular, gentle handling, they can become comfortable with their human caretakers, reducing any aggressive tendencies.

5. Good Health

King snakes are generally robust creatures that, if provided with proper care and diet, are less prone to health issues compared to other pet reptiles.

Cons of Owning a King Snake as a Pet

However, as with any pet, there are some considerations you must be aware of before bringing a king snake into your home.

1. Size and Space

King snakes can grow up to 6 feet, requiring a larger terrarium as they grow. This can be a challenge if space is a constraint.

2. Feeding Live Prey

Some king snakes may prefer live prey over frozen ones, which might be uncomfortable for some owners.

3. Regular Care

Although they’re considered low-maintenance, king snakes still require regular feeding, a clean terrarium, and health check-ups.

4. Not Ideal for Handling

While king snakes are generally docile, they are not the type of pet you can cuddle with. Frequent handling can stress them.

King Snake Habitat

Kingsnake Habitat ComponentRecommended Specification
Enclosure SizeAdult: 120-gallon tank, Young: 40-gallon tank
SubstrateAspen shavings, newspaper, or reptile carpet
TemperatureWarm Side: 85°F, Cool Side: 70-75°F
LightingNatural light/dark cycle, Optional reptile UVB lights
EnrichmentMultiple snug hides, climbing branches or logs

Enclosure Size

Kingsnakes are curious creatures fond of exploration. While their slender build might deceive you into thinking they need a small enclosure, this couldn’t be further from the truth.

To provide your kingsnake with an adequate amount of space, you can use a simple calculation. The rule of thumb is: snake length x half snake length x half snake length = length x width x height.

So, for an average kingsnake, the minimum enclosure size will be 48”L x 24”W x 24”H. This is an absolute minimum, but I am resolute in advising that you should always aim to provide an enclosure that’s larger than this base requirement.

A larger enclosure not only provides your kingsnake more room to roam but also better mirrors their natural habitat. This is particularly true for certain species of kingsnakes known to grow larger than 4′ long. For these species, providing an enclosure that’s more than the minimum size isn’t just recommended – it’s required.

Here are some enclosures that MyPetReptiles recommends for kingsnakes, based on the snake’s expected adult length:

3′ long or less:

3-4′ long:

Over 4′ long:

Lighting & UVB for Kingsnakes

Let’s start by getting the schedule right. The lights in your kingsnake’s enclosure should be switched on for approximately 12 hours each day. However, it’s not as simple as turning them on when you wake up and switching them off before going to bed. The most effective approach is to match your lighting schedule with local sunrise and sunset times, aligning it with the seasonal cycles.

UVB Lighting

Despite a common misconception, UVB lighting is beneficial for snakes’ overall health. It’s true that kingsnakes can survive without UVB lighting, but merely surviving is not the aim. We want our scaly friends to thrive, which is why I strongly recommend providing UVB lighting for your kingsnake.

Getting the strength of UVB lighting right can be tricky. It requires the careful consideration of distance and potential mesh obstruction. UVB strength is measured using the UV Index (UVI). For kingsnakes, I recommend either a Zoo Med T5 HO Reptisun 5.0 or an Arcadia T5 HO Forest 6% bulb. The bulb should be long enough to span half of the enclosure and placed on the warm side, ideally without mesh obstruction.

In terms of placement of your basking branch or platform, follow these guidelines:

  • With mesh obstruction: 9-12”
  • Without mesh obstruction: 12-14”

For the best results, use an Arcadia ProT5 or Vivarium Electronics fixture. To achieve a UVI of 2.0-3.0 in the basking area, use a Solarmeter 6.5. Please note that these are approximate recommendations based on available data.

General Illumination

Moving onto general illumination, it’s crucial to remember that kingsnakes are known to be active during both the day and night. Therefore, providing bright illumination during the day can stimulate activity and natural behaviors.

For this purpose, a bright 6500K LED or T5 HO fluorescent grow light spanning most of the enclosure’s length is ideal. Personally, I vouch for the Arcadia Jungle Dawn LED Bar and the Bio Dude Glow & Grow LED for their excellent performance.

Moreover, these lamps are beneficial for supporting any live plants you may have in the setup, enhancing the overall environmental balance of your kingsnake’s habitat.

Kingsnake Temperature Requirements

As a cold-blooded creature, a kingsnake’s temperature needs are unlike our own. Unlike humans who are warm-blooded, kingsnakes have to regulate their body temperature by moving between different temperature zones. This makes proper temperature regulation important for your captive kingsnake’s health.

In nature, kingsnakes bask in warm patches of sunlight or seek warmth in burrows. To replicate this in captivity, I recommend using a halogen flood heat bulb. This piece of equipment best simulates the type of sunlight warmth a kingsnake would naturally experience.

Optimal Temperatures: Basking Surface and Cool Side

Now, let’s talk specifics. The basking surface temperature of your kingsnake’s enclosure should be maintained at 90-95°F (32-35°C), while the cooler side should be at 75-80°F (23-27°C). Please note, these temperatures can slightly vary based on the specific subspecies of kingsnake you are caring for. Furthermore, during the night, all heat sources should be turned off.

Typically, 50-75w halogen flood bulbs are sufficient to achieve your desired basking surface temperature. Remember, the basking rock should be strategically placed on top of the black plastic hide box—your snake’s warm hide.

If your snake seems uncomfortably warm, take action by adjusting the heat using a plug-in lamp dimmer. Conversely, if the basking surface is too cool, you need to replace your current bulb with a higher wattage one.

To ensure even heating of your kingsnake’s coiled body, use multiple heat bulbs to create an ample basking area. In most cases, two bulbs should suffice for an average kingsnake. The key is to provide a warm hide for your snake by placing a black box under the heat lamps, topped by a flat basking stone.

I highly recommend using an infrared thermometer (commonly known as a temperature gun) to measure the basking surface temperature. On the other hand, to gauge the temperature of the warm hide, a digital probe thermometer is your best bet. The Etekcity 774, for instance, is a trustworthy infrared thermometer you can use in your kingsnake’s enclosure.

I want to assert the importance of maintaining the correct temperature requirements for your kingsnake’s wellbeing. Careful monitoring and adjustment, as needed, will ensure a comfortable environment for your reptilian friend to thrive in.

Kingsnake Humidity Requirements

Kingsnakes generally require an average humidity level of 40-60%. This can be accurately measured using a digital probe hygrometer, ideally placed in the middle of the enclosure.

Maintaining consistent humidity levels within this specified range is important for your pet’s health. Deviations, whether higher or lower, can compromise your pet’s health. It is, however, worth noting that it is quite natural for the humidity to be higher on the cool end of the enclosure and lower on the warm end. Also, it’s normal for humidity levels to increase at night.

Take into account the specific optimal humidity levels, as these may slightly vary depending on the subspecies of kingsnake you’re keeping. These nuances in care for different subspecies underline the importance of obtaining accurate and detailed knowledge about the specific subspecies you own.

If you find the humidity levels in your snake’s enclosure dipping below the required range, an effective way to raise it is by using a pressure sprayer to mist the habitat as needed.

Another valuable trick is to place moistened sphagnum moss inside the cool hide. This acts as a “humid retreat” for your kingsnake. Regularly check and change this moss to prevent the growth of mold, which can be harmful to your pet.

Finally, consider placing a layer of leaf litter on top of the substrate. The leaf litter not only mimics the snake’s natural habitat but also contributes to maintaining a steady humidity level.

Substrate Options for Kingsnakes

The best substrate for a kingsnake is the one that closely replicates its natural environment. Soil is generally the best option to meet this need. Soil effectively replicates the conditions of a kingsnake’s natural habitat, thereby contributing significantly to the snake’s overall health and happiness.

Below, I have listed some high-quality commercial substrate options that are available for kingsnakes:

  1. Zoo Med Reptisoil
  2. Zoo Med Eco Earth
  3. Exo Terra Plantation Soil
  4. Bio Dude Terra Firma Bioactive Kit

In a situation where you might be in a bind, shredded aspen could serve as a viable substitute, but be wary, as it tends to mold easily.

For a cost-effective alternative, a do-it-yourself substrate mix is worth considering. This involves combining 40% organic, additive-free topsoil, 40% Zoo Med Reptisoil, and 20% play sand. This mix tends to be the most affordable option without compromising the health and comfort of your kingsnake.

Make sure to provide an approximately 4-inch deep substrate layer. For a 4x2x2 enclosure, you’ll need at least 80 quarts of substrate. I strongly recommend a generous layer of clean leaf litter on top to boost humidity retention and provide your kingsnake with engaging exploration material.

Now, you must keep cleanliness as a priority for maintaining your kingsnake’s health. Daily removal of feces and urates is paramount, with contaminated substrate scooped out and replaced. For optimal hygiene, I propose a complete substrate replacement every 3-4 months.

Décor Ideas for a Kingsnake Enclosure

Decorations aren’t merely aesthetic enhancements for your kingsnake’s enclosure. They’re significant contributors to environmental enrichment.

The enrichment items in your kingsnake’s enclosure serve a triad of essential roles.

  1. Exercise Encouragement: Kingsnakes, like all creatures, require physical activity for health. Strategically placed décor can encourage movement and exercise.
  2. Natural Instinct Stimulation: Kingsnakes have innate instincts that should be fostered, even in captivity. Proper décor choice can help stimulate these natural instincts.
  3. Promotion of Overall Wellbeing: A well-decorated enclosure can promote a kingsnake’s overall wellbeing, making them happier and healthier pets.

Suitable Décor Options for Kingsnakes

There’s a wide range of suitable environmental enrichment ideas you can incorporate into your kingsnake’s enclosure. Here are some of the best options:

  • Cork Rounds
  • Cork Flats
  • Grape Wood
  • Ghost Wood
  • Magnetic Ledges
  • Artificial Plants
  • Sturdy Live Plants

These items aren’t just ornamental; they offer practical benefits, such as potential hiding places and climbing opportunities.

Importance of Hiding Places

One can’t overstate the importance of hiding places for your kingsnake. The more hiding places you provide, the more comfortable your snake will feel, even in the open. This comfort means that you’re more likely to see your snake exploring its enclosure rather than remaining hidden.

For maximum comfort, ensure that hides are snug when the snake is coiled. I cannot stress enough the impact this can have on your snake’s comfort and security levels.

Feeding Your Kingsnake


As a kingsnake owner, your primary responsibility is to ensure that your pet has a balanced and nutritionally appropriate diet. Let’s dig deeper into what that means and how you can effectively feed your kingsnake.

It’s important to assert that kingsnakes are carnivores, requiring a diet of whole animal prey to receive the necessary nutrition. The frequency of their meals typically varies with age:

  • Hatchlings: Every 5-7 days
  • Juveniles: Every 7-10 days
  • Adults: Every 10-14 days

The size of your snake’s prey should not exceed 1.5 times the width of your kingsnake at its widest point or roughly 10% of its body weight. Monitor your snake closely, and if it appears overweight, you should either decrease the frequency of feedings or the size of the feeders.

While mice are the most common feeders, kingsnakes thrive on a diet that extends beyond just rats and mice. A 2019 study by Wiseman et al. revealed that wild kingsnakes consume a diverse array of foods, including other snakes, small mammals, lizards, birds, reptile eggs, and amphibians. Therefore, the keyword for feeding your pet snake is variety.

Here are some prey ideas for your kingsnake:

  • Mice
  • Young rats
  • African soft-furred rats
  • Hamsters
  • Gerbils
  • Young quail
  • Quail eggs
  • Chicks
  • Reptile eggs
  • Green anoles
  • House geckos
  • Small snakes
  • Reptilinks

Quality feeders can be procured from breeders such as Layne Labs, RodentPro, and Reptilinks.

Prioritize safety by offering frozen-thawed prey rather than live to your pet snake. This practice reduces the risk of injury to your snake and is widely considered more humane. Utilize soft-tipped feeding tweezers to minimize the risk of accidental bites during feeding times.

The Role of Supplements

While snakes can survive without vitamin or mineral supplements, occasional supplementation can be an effective way to prevent nutritional deficiencies. Occasionally, lightly dust the prey item with a 50/50 mix of calcium and multivitamin before thawing. Arcadia Revitalise D3 and Repashy CalciumPlus are both excellent supplement choices.

Hydrating Your Kingsnake

Finally, never underestimate the importance of clean, fresh water for your kingsnake. They should always have access to a water bowl large enough for them to curl up inside. This dish should be scrubbed weekly with a veterinary disinfectant such as F10SC to ensure optimal hygiene.

King Snake Cost


Initial Purchase

Before even embarking on the path of Kingsnake care, you’ll need to purchase the snake itself. This is a crucial initial cost that varies depending upon the snake’s species, age, size, and coloration. On average, a Kingsnake can cost anywhere from $50 to $500. Let me be clear: a higher price does not necessarily equate to a healthier or ‘better’ snake. It primarily corresponds to the rarity of the specific breed or color morph.

Enclosure Costs

Kingsnakes require an appropriate living habitat, which includes a suitable enclosure and necessary add-ons. Here’s an estimated cost breakdown:

ItemsEstimated Cost
Terrarium$50 – $200
Heating pad/Heat lamp$15 – $50
Thermometer/Hygrometer$10 – $30
Hides$10 – $25
Water Bowl$5 – $15

Keep in mind, these figures might fluctuate based on the quality and brand of items you choose. Rest assured, investing in high-quality items from the get-go can save you from frequent replacements and ensure the well-being of your snake.

Maintenance Costs

After the initial setup, Kingsnakes have ongoing needs, which entail costs for feeding, bedding replacement, and potential vet visits. Monthly, you can expect to spend:

ItemsEstimated Monthly Cost
Food (mice/rats)$10 – $20
Bedding$10 – $20
Vet visits (if required)Variable

Common Health Issues in Kingsnakes


1. Bad Sheds

Humidity within the enclosure is too low. To remove old/bad sheds, place a wet, wrung out towel in enclosure for 1 – 2 days, keeping it damp at all times. This works best when kept in their hide box. Make sure you clean enclosure of all wet bedding and pieces of shed. If shed has not come off by then, call for advise or assistance from local vet or breeder.

2. Skin Blisters

These are usually caused by enclosures being too damp or wet. You can correct the cause of the problem by increasing the ventilation and using a smaller water bowl to dry out the enclosure. Use an antibiotic salve on the blisters to help with healing. Call for advice or assistance if problem persists.

3. Eye-Caps

Hold snake and place wet hand towel on eye for 5 minutes, then carefully work eye-cap off with fingernail or tweezers. If you feel uncomfortable with performing this procedure, call for assistance.

4. Regurgitation

If your snake regurgitates, two steps need to occur. One, do not feed your animal for 7 – 10 days, then feed a very small meal. Approximately three days later, again feed another very small meal. As long as he keeps it down, feed every third day a little more at a time till back on normal feeding schedule. Second, do not handle your snake when it has a meal in its stomach. If your snake regurgitates two times in a row, call for assistance from your local breeder or veterinarian.

5. Mouth-Rot

Damage in the mouth can cause infections to occur. If you look into the mouth and see a white, cottage cheese-like substance, this is mouth-rot. Call for advice and a check-up.

6. Slow Laying/Egg Binding

Whenever a female king lays her eggs, she will completely deposit the clutch within 6 – 24 hours. If there are eggs still present within the female after an additional 24 hours, call for advice and a check-up from your local vet or breeder.

7. Injuries

Any small injuries where the skin is ripped or cracked can be treated with an antibiotic salve such as Neosporin ointment. Larger injuries should include a call for advice and a check-up.

8. Pneumonia

If your king is lethargic, keeps its head elevated and sometimes has bubbles coming out of its nostrils, any or all of these symptoms show a case of pneumonia. To cure this, the snake needs three things to be done:

  • Make sure the temperature is at 85° F – 90° F.
  • Take the humidity level down to 10% – 30%.
  • Give the snake an antibiotic such as tetracycline.

Make sure you call your local vet for advice or a check-up as soon as possible.

9. Not Eating

  • During the breeding season, the males may have a lack of appetite. This is not a problem if the male is healthy and strong.
  • Gravid females sometimes will not eat because of the space the eggs require around the digestive system.
  • Hatchlings can be very picky about their first few meals. Always make sure the breeder guarantees 5 – 10 meals eaten before the acquisition of the hatchling.
  • Some kings will not eat when they are ‘going opaque’ (getting ready to shed).
  • If a king has been eating steadily, then misses 3 – 5 meals in a row, call for advice.

Beeding, Egglying and Haching

Minimum weight for a female should be approximately 200 grams. Attempting to breed kings smaller than that may lead to egg-binding and other problems. Males should never be smaller than the female otherwise there is the chance of the female thinking the male is dinner instead of a suitor.


All kingsnakes that are to be bred should be brumated (form of hibernation). Brumation stimulates both egg production and sperm fertility. To hibernate your snakes, you must stop feeding your animals a minimum of 20 days before placing them into their cooler hibernation quarters. This clean out step must be done in your pet’s warm room. This allow time for the snake’s digestive system to empty out. If this is not done prior to brumation, the food will begin to decay and poison your animal.


Place the kings into a sweater box, that has been holed for ventilation, containing about two inches of pine shavings as a bedding. A water bowl needs to be included as well. Close and secure the box and place in a cool area with an average temperature range of 50° F – 65° F. Check weekly that the pine shavings are dry and the bowl has water. The animals should hibernate for 40 – 80 days.


To bring your kings out of hibernation, first setup their permanent enclosures, then place the snakes into their respective enclosures at a temperature range of 80° F – 90° F. Start feeding at 7 – 10 days after bringing out of hibernation.


Place the male into the female’s enclosure for 2 – 3 days, then remove for 1 day. Keep repeating this pattern from 14 days post-hibernation to approximately 100 days post-hibernation. If you have more that one female to be bred to a specific male than work with a daily rotation, switching the males each evening. Handling is recommended during all the breeding season. It seems that handling actually stimulates the kings to breed.

Egg Chamber

Start with a plastic shoe box and fill ¾ of the way with damp Sphagnum moss. The spagnum is too wet if standing water pools at the bottom of the egg chamber. Place the lid on the shoebox in such a way that the lid is offset wit a gap of 2 ½ inches. Secure the lid in this position with several heavy rubber bands.


The female will start swelling when she is gravid. At about 30 days post-hibernation you will want to place an egg chamber into each of the females’ enclosures. The females will lay their clutch of eggs about 7 – 10 days after their pre-laying shed. It can take 6 – 24 hours to lay all of the eggs. If you encounter slow laying (more than 24 hours) or egg-binding, check the problem solving care sheet. Two or three days after laying, feed the female small meals.

  • Eggs should never be rotated.
  • Eggs should not be moved any more than absolutely necessary.
  • Do not separate the eggs from each other.
  • Do not separate the bad eggs from the good eggs if they are stuck together.


Close egg chamber completely and place in an area or incubator averaging 85° F – 90° F. Never place in the direct sunlight. Humidity inside the egg chamber should be between 90% – !00%. The egg chamber should have very little ventilation, but should not be air-tight. Eggs will take approximately 60 days to hatch.

  • Never place egg chamber in direct sunlight.
  • Never place egg chamber directly on a heating pad or other direct heat source.
  • Mist eggs to keep the spagnum damp, again watch for standing water in the bottom.

Haching Eggs

At about 50 days, the eggs will begin to pucker slightly as the hatchling begins to absorb the yolk. At about 60 days, the first hatchlings will start to “pip” (cut) the eggshell. If all the babies have not pipped, 24 hours after the first pipping, open the unpipped eggs carefully with an exacto knife or razor blade. 

Be very careful not to cut to deeply and injure the hatchling. Also, widen the pipped egg’s slits so that the hatchling do not hide within the eggs and possibly drown. Let the offspring come out of the eggs on their own.


Applegate, R. (2011, November 30). California Kingsnake Care Sheet. Reptiles Magazine.

California Mountain Kingsnake Care Sheet. (n.d.). VMS Professional Herpetoculture. Retrieved December 2, 2021, from

Kingsnakes and Milksnakes (Genus Lampropeltis) — Observations . (n.d.). INaturalist. Retrieved December 2, 2021, from

Lampropeltis nigritis / Black Mexican kinsnake – Care. (n.d.). Het Terrarium. Retrieved December 2, 2021, from

Markel, R. G. (1990). Kingsnakes and Milk Snakes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc.

Spiess, P. (n.d.). Captive Care of Kingsnakes and Milksnakes by Petra Spiess. Http://Www.Kingsnake.Com/Rockymountain/RMHkingsand.Html. Retrieved December 2, 2021, from

Sunrise and sunset times in Los Angeles. (n.d.). Timeanddate.Com. Retrieved December 2, 2021, from

Wiseman, Kevin & Greene, Harry & Koo, Michelle & Long, Douglas. (2019). Feeding ecology of a generalist predator, the California Kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae): why rare prey matter. Herpetological Conservation and Biology. 14. 1-30.

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